Bamako study area

Bamako, population 1,690,471 (2006), is the capital and largest city of Mali, and currently estimated to be the fastest growing city in Africa (6th fastest in the world). Located on the Niger River in the southwestern part of the country (12°39’N and 8°04’W at an altitude of 380m), the city is within a basin surrounded by hills. Bamako is the nation’s administrative center, with a river port located in nearby Koulikoro. The climate is Sahelian. The total annual rainfall amount is of 878 mm, with well-marked dry and rainy seasons. Wet season begins in May June with maximum in August (average of 234mm and 26°C) to stop in October – November.

Experimental strategy

The experimental strategy of the POLCA programme includes extensive measurements (one year) associated to intensive in situ campaigns (30 days in dry seasons), deployed in Bamako and Dakar cities. In both cities, super sites have been identified to be representative of typical urban activities (industries, traffic, domestic fuels…) of West Africa: downtown crossroads on balconies in the vicinity of markets.

In Bamako, the Nimagala building has been chosen near the great market.

Extensive measurements concern weekly aerosol chemical composition, real time black carbon measurements, and monthly gases concentrations. During intensive measurements period, atmospheric gases and particles pollution characterization is monitored and detailed (real time gases concentrations, aerosols impactors…). Also, emission factors will be measured for typical motorized vehicles (two wheelers, buses…).

Impacts on public health is conducted in parallel through toxicological and epidemiological studies. In vitro analysis are conducted on aerosols impactors. Specific groups of persons present on the super site crossroads are submitted to biological analysis (blood, spirometry…). Moreover, epidemiological data on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases are reported from hospital structures or health medical centers.

Views and Download : Table1: Experimental POLCA Design: atmospheric measurements

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