What is Biosphere ?

It is the totality of living beings on Earth and also those elements of the hydrosphere, atmosphere, cryosphere and lithosphere with which living organisms interact. It is the presence of a biosphere that distinguishes the Earth as a living planet from dead when compared to planets such as Mars and Venus. It also the metabolic result of the organisms that make up the biosphere that preserve the Earth as a system hospitable to life (e.g. free oxygen, equilible climate, large bodies of standing water). The term “biosphere” was coined by the geologist Eduard Suess in 1875 who used it in passing when describing his work on the geological structure of the Alps. It was developed by the Russian scientist Vladimir Vernadsky who defined it as “the envelope of life, i.e. the area of living matter…”.

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