Study area

The Nouna study area is located in Northwest of Burkina Faso to Mali’s border. Nouna is a department located in the province of Kossi (7324 km 2). Approximately 20,000 inhabitants live in Nouna town. The 50,000 other inhabitants of the department live in sixty villages

Altitudes of area is ranging between 150 and 200 meters. The northern zone, facing the Sahel, is characterized by sandy soils and a less dense vegetation as the south. In effect, the south receives higher rainfall, and presence of clay and silt promotes surface water. Study area is located in the Sudano-Sahelian zone where malaria is endemic but dependent on rainfall.

Annual average rainfall is 817 mm per year and temperature is 27.8 ° C. Study area is subjected to Sahelian climate with summer monsoon (rainy season) from June to September. From March to May, temperatures are higher and can exceed 45 degrees during the day, while rainfall and hence vegetation are minimal. The majority of the population lives in extreme poverty. Majority of population depends directly on agriculture. Harvest takes place during few months and storage in not easy. Risk to lose a crop due to drought or floods exist, and can lead to famine.